Research on Stuttering
Do’s and Dont’s with the Stutterers:
|try to talk to them||avoid them|
|give them time they want||look away during stuttering moments|
|show interest in their talks||interrupt during talking|
|try to reduce awkwardness and tension||fill in words|
Roughly about 3 million Americans stutter. Stuttering can affect all ages but mostly in children of 2-5 years old. Boys are more prone than girls. About 1% or less of adult stutter. Stuttering is a kind of speech disorder sounds, syllables, words are repeated or prolonged. These disrupt the normal flow of talking. Sometimes it is accompanied by struggling behaviour like- lip shaking or rapid winking of eyes. Hence cause discomfort communicating. It is also referred as “Stammering” by few.
- excessive repetitions of sounds, syllables, words or phrases
- prolonged words
- strained speech start
- facial tension while talking
- sometimes, vocal tension occuring while speaking
- avoiding situations to escape talking
- changing words in fear of stuttering
- undesired facial or body movements while talking
Types and Cause of Stuttering
- “Psychogenic Stuttering” is caused by emotional trauma or difficulties with thoughts.
- “Developmental Stuttering” is seen with children at early days of learning to speak. It is the most common form of stuttering. Generally the disorder is passed from parents to the child.
- Heart trauma, strokes or brain injury cause “Neurogenic Stuttering” .
Treatment of Stuttering:
The exact reason why people stutter is yet to get confirmed by scientists. Similarly, it has no proven mode of cure.
According to Charles Van Riper 1973:
- Identification of behaviour, attitude and feelings
- Reduction of fear and anxiety
- Teaching difficult sounds, words and situations
- Intentionally stuttering
- Modification in words for easy speaking
- Preparing assignments separately for mild stutterers and severe stutterers respectively.
- Stuttering Therapy: This therapy is practised for teens and adults. They are practised to regulate their breath and speak slowly. gradual process starting from single syllable to word and then sentence.
- Drug Therapy: The US Food & Drug Administration (FDA), has not approved any drug treating medications till now. But few drugs treating epilepsy, anxiety or depression may be prescribed on a short term basis to reduce the chances of side effects. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) claims drug therapy as ineffective. But still creating drugs to fight ‘stuttering’ is going.
- Electronic devices: Stutters sometimes use digital devices which alters the speaker’s words slightly such that the sounds appear coming from one person at the same pitch.
- Scientists are working now to identify possible gene(s) responsible for the stuttering.
- NIDCD Scientists have found that a section of Chromosome 12 is linked for stuttering in a particular group.
- Searching for stutterers who show similar patterns of stuttering or behaviours of stuttering from a common cause.
- Analysing children who are prone to stuttering.
- Studying stutterers who continue their stuttering till adulthood.
- Usage of brain imaging tools to scan brain activity