Speech Therapy

Non-fluent Aphasia – What Is It? Its Causes, Symptoms And Types

It is an impairment; reduction of language ability which can be caused due to an injury to the head, breakage or rupture of blood vessels in the brain, interrupted blood flow to the brain cells, tumor, and illness. Non-fluent Aphasia is also called as expressive aphasia and the symptoms are mild to severe problems with articulation, with hearing and understanding others, repeating words, and naming things, people, and objects.

What Is Non-fluent Aphasia?
It is a problem with articulation, with language, with words, with speech, and expressing ideas, thoughts, and views. The patients suffering from this kind of aphasia put lots of effort to speak. Their speech is not fluent, it is grammatically incorrect, and they tend to skip many words while speaking, especially prepositions, conjunctions, and parts of speech. Similarly, they find it hard to express themselves in written words too.

What Are The Causes?
This type of aphasia is caused when the frontal lobe of the brain is damaged. It could be developmental, or acquired. And following are the reasons for the condition:

  • Brain injury
  • Stroke
  • Illness
  • Tumor
  • Lack of proper blood and oxygen to the brain
  • Cerebral hemorrhage

What Are The Symptoms?
A person with this condition could face any of the following symptoms.

  • They speak in short sentences.
  • The ability to repeat themselves could be mild to severe or in some cases poor.
  • The ability to naming things, places, people, and objects could be poor, moderate, or good.
  • The ability to understand what they hear ranges from good, average, to bad.
  • In some patients it has been observed that they understand other person’s speech, but they cannot speak fluently themselves. And this frustrates them.
  • It has also been observed that in some cases though the ability to understand simple language is intact, complex and lengthy sentences are hard to comprehend.

Types Of Non-Fluent Aphasia:
Depending upon the part of the brain that is damaged, this type of aphasia is further sub-divided into four parts:

1. Broca’s :
This condition is caused by damage to the lower part of the frontal lobe which controls the motor aspect of the speaking ability.

2. Transcortical Motor:
It is usually caused by a stroke and is almost similar to the Broca’s aphasia. In this situation a person’s speech is hesitant and the understanding of complex and lengthy sentences a bit difficult.

3. Global:
A person with this situation finds it extremely difficult to understand, speak, read, and write. It also leads to total reduction of written and spoken language. This is caused by a large lesion on the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes of the brain.

4. Mixed Transcortical:
It is the not the most common of all the sub-types and the sufferer finds it very difficult to understand and speak but the repetition ability is intact.

These are the causes, symptoms and types of non-fluent aphasia. Any sign of the condition should be considered seriously and consulting a speech and language therapist is advised for further examinations.

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