Different Speech Language Impairments In Adults
Toddlers and young school going children generally make mistakes while speaking because they are in the learning phase, but when the same mistakes are made by an adult, then things might not look as pleasant or as cute as with kids. Speech Language Impairments in adults could be due to medical conditions such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, brain tumor etc. These causes can lead to different disorders like apraxia, aphasia, dysarthria, stuttering, and voice problems.
Speech Language Impairments:
Let us learn a little more about these different types of language and speech disorders in brief. Speech disorder in adults is divided into apraxia, dysarthria, voice and stuttering problems, where as language disorder deals with aphasia.
1. Apraxia Disorder:
Apraxia is a neurological disorder that results in inability to speak and make correct sound even though a person with this disorder very well understands what to say and how to say, and has the will to say. The speech is unclear and sufferer has trouble saying the correct sounds and syllables of words.
This condition is due to the damage caused to that part of the brain which controls and maintains the speaking abilities. Dementia, stroke, brain tumor, and traumatic brain injury are some of the reasons for the disorder.
2. Dysarthria Problem:
The slow rate, slurred speech, hoarse voice, saliva flowing out of the mouth, and mumbling quality of speech is because of the dysarthria problem. It is a disorder which is the result of weak muscles involved in the act of speaking. Face, mouth, and respiratory system muscles become weak or in certain cases may not even move. It is very difficult to understand the speech of these patients.
This happens when a person suffers stroke, brain injury, cerebral palsy, brain tumor, parkinson’s disease etc.
3. Stuttering Condition:
Stuttering interrupts the smooth flow of speech and is also called as disfluencies. It is characterized by the frequent disruptions, or repetitions, or long pauses, or hesitation which slows down the speech.
Genetics and neurophysiology are the main reasons for the problem of stammering in people.
4. Voice Disorder:
Rash, sharp, dull, stuffed, nasal, pitchy, loud, raspy, hoarse, and in some cases no voice is result because of this disorder.
It could be due to shouting, screaming, infection, cancer, or paralysis of vocal chords.
5. Aphasia Language Disorder:
Aphasia is a language disorder and it affects adversely all the components of communication. Reading, writing, listening, and speaking abilities are adversely affected by it.
Any damage, injury, lesion, or tumor on the left side of the brain that is involved in the communication, speech and language skills could result in aphasia.
These are a few speech language impairments in adults that potentially obstruct smooth and fluent communication and can adversely affect a person’s personal and professional life. A speech therapist would be very beneficial in treating these conditions.