Speech Therapy

What Are The Different Speech And Language Difficulties? A Summary

Inability to produce correct sounds, stammering, abrupt pauses when talking, and harsh voice are only some of the many types of Speech And Language Difficulties that can adversely affect our progress both in personal and professional life. Communication skills hold the key to success and if this very basic ability is marred by various conditions and disorders then it can be very de-motivating and depressing. Almost 80-90% of the population is suffering from one or the other type of speech and language difficulties without even realizing it. Let us take a look at some of these disorders to understand them better.

Following are some of the disorders that can affect speech and language of an individual:
Articulation, voice, and disfluency are the basic three types of speech disorder where as expressive and receptive disorders are related to language disabilities.

1. Stuttering:
Stuttering or stammering is a disfluency problem where the sufferer repeats a word, prolongs the word, or takes an abrupt pause disrupting the smooth flow of speech.
It could be a result of genetics, different neurophsiological make up, emotional trauma, high expectations from the person, or in some cases problem with the reasoning ability.

2. Cluttering:
Cluttering too is a speech disorder. The speed, with which the person communicates his or her ideas, is abnormally fast, irregular and exceeds the normal limit, making it difficult to understand. The spoken language is full of words, unclear and hard to understand.
Drugs, alcohol, side-effects of certain medicines that can interrupt concentration, and any behavior that can result in disturbing the focus are the causes.

3. Dysarthria:
Dysarthria is the inability to speak clearly and properly due to the lack of co-ordination of the muscles involved in speaking. This type of speech disorder is due to the weak respiratory, mouth, face, and lip muscles, or the weakness of these organs, or the total absence of movement of these organs.
Cerebral palsy, brain injury, stroke are some of the reasons for this kind of difficulty.

4. Verbal Apraxia:
It is a neurological speech disorder where a person faces difficulty to express his or her feelings or ideas properly in correct words. All the efforts to put all the words correctly and sound the syllables accurately fail.
Stroke, illness, injury, or any damage to the part of the brain that controls the communication abilities results in the condition. In some cases it is right from the birth and is called developmental speech apraxia.

5. Voice Disorder:
Breaking voice, harsh, raspy sound, fluctuating pitch, and nasal sound are some of the different problems labeled as voice disorder. Suddenly running out of air or breath while talking, or talking too soft to be audible or too loud are also other problems.
Smoking, screaming, throat infection, acid reflux, and paralysis of the vocal chords are the reasons for this condition.

6. Dysprosody:
It is a rarest neurological disorder that affects the pitch, native accent, rhythm, and volume of the speech.
Brain injury, tumor, vascular damage, and stroke are attributed as the reasons for the condition.

7. Expressive Language Disorder:
It is a problem where the expression of language is affected negatively. Both verbal and written abilities are marred, and a person or a child’s ability for spoken word is below par when compared to the peers. Limited vocabulary, trouble remembering words, and difficulty with long sentences are some of the symptoms.
Seizures, head injury, stroke, and damage are the reasons for it.

8. Receptive Language Problem:
It is the disorder which affects the interpreting and understanding abilities of spoken and written words.
This could be due to hearing impairment. It is also associated with autism, a developmental disorder.

9. Mixed Language Difficulty:
It is a disorder that impacts the reading, writing, listening, and understanding of an individual. This difficulty can range from mild to severe and can interfere with day to day life activities.
The reasons could range from hearing impairment to head injury.

This was the summary of different speech and language difficulties that can hinder communication and interaction abilities of an individual.

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