Speech disorders refer to various conditions in which an individual has a problem in forming or creating speech sounds required to communicate with others.
The different type of speech disorders include:
Stuttering or stammering – A speech disorder in which sounds, syllables, or words are repeated or last longer than normal. These problems cause a break in the flow of speech (called disfluency).
Cluttering – Like stuttering, cluttering is a fluency disorder, but the two disorders are not the same. Cluttering involves excessive breaks in the normal flow of speech that seem to result from disorganized speech planning, talking too fast or in spurts, or simply being unsure of what one wants to say.
Dysprosody – This is known as the rarest neurological speech disorder. It is characterized by alterations in intensity, the timing of utterance segments, cadence, rhythm and intonation of words. There will be difficulty in timing and pitch control.
Muteness – This is a complete inability to speak.
Speech Sound Disorders – These disorders involve difficulty in creating certain speech sounds (mostly consonants like as/ s/ r/ or/). They are sub categorized into articulation disorders, characterized by difficulty to learn and produce sounds physically and phonemic disorders, characterized by difficulty to learn the sound distinctions of a particular language.
Voice Disorders – These are often physical impairments which involve functioning of the larynx or vocal resonance.
Dysarthria – A condition where in there is difficulty in controlling or coordinating speech muscles when speaking. It is characterized by slow or slurred speech which is difficult to understand.
Apraxia of speech – It is also known as dyspraxia or apraxia where a person finds difficulty in saying something correctly and consistently. There occurs rearranging of sounds in a word.